INTERNATIONAL LAW AND CULTURAL HERITAGE

Crediti: 
6
Settore scientifico disciplinare: 
DIRITTO INTERNAZIONALE (IUS/13)
Anno accademico di offerta: 
2016/2017
Semestre dell'insegnamento: 
Secondo Semestre
Lingua di insegnamento: 

Inglese

Obiettivi formativi

Al completamento del corso, lo studente acquisirà:
- una buona conoscenza dei principi e delle regole del diritto internazionale in materia di patrimonio culturale;
- le conoscenze e le abilità per comprendere, interpretare, criticare e applicare tali principi e regole alle controversie in materia di patrimonio culturale

Prerequisiti

Conoscenze basilari del Diritto internazionale

Contenuti dell'insegnamento

Il corso offre una panoramica critica degli aspetti chiave del diritto internazionale in materia di patrimonio culturale, soffermandosi sugli aspetti teorici, sostanziali e procedurali del diritto internazionale in questo settore, nonché sull’impatto di questo sul diritto internazionale generale.

Benché forme di protezione giuridica del patrimonio culturale siano state previste sin dal Rinascimento, tali iniziative sono state in gran parte frammentarie. I cambiamenti rapidi e diffusi che si sono verificati nelle ultime decadi hanno condotto alla formazione di un settore emergente del diritto internazionale, denominato diritto internazionale del patrimonio culturale, manifestatosi nell’adozione di una varietà di strumenti giuridici in materia di patrimonio tangibile e intangibile, sia monumentale che effimero, che prevedono una protezione sia in tempo di pace sia in tempo di guerra. Nella stessa direzione vanno le leggi o le modifiche legislative che diversi Stati hanno introdotto nel loro ordinamento interno e con riferimento al loro territorio. Oltre a formare l’oggetto di questi trattati, la cultura e il patrimonio culturale investono altri settori del diritto internazionale, quali: il diritto internazionale degli investimenti; il diritto del commercio internazionale in contesti istituzionali quali l’OMC, il NAFTA e la UE; il diritto penale, internazionale, come evidenziato dalla giurisprudenza della Corte penale internazionale e del Tribunale penale internazionale per la ex Jugoslavia; il diritto della proprietà intellettuale e i lavori sui saperi tradizionali in corso nel quadro dell’Organizzazione mondiale per la proprietà intellettuale (WIPO); la tutela dei diritti umani, con il discorso sui diritti culturali; e, infine, la teoria del diritto, dal liberalismo classico sino alle più recenti riflessioni delle teorie critiche del diritto.
Il Corso si articola in 12 lezioni a carattere seminariale di tre ore ciascuna:

1: Aspetti teorici
2: Conflitti armati e occupazione militare
3: Distruzione intenzionale
4: Patrimonio mondiale e patrimonio sottomarino
5: Commercio e restituzione di beni culturali
6: Patrimonio intangibile e lingue
7: Diversità culturale e diritto del commercio internazionale
8: Diritti degli artisti, libertà di espressione e diritti culturali
9: Diversità culturale, diritti umani, minoranze e popoli indigeni
10: Rimedi per il danno alla cultura
11: Soluzione delle controversie
12: Patrimonio culturale e diritto internazionale generale.

Programma esteso

Gli studenti dovranno leggere i seguenti contributi e documenti prima di ciascuna lezione:

1: Aspetti teorici
• Appiah, K., Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (New York: Norton, 2007), Chapter 8: Whose culture is it, anyway?
• The Marquis de Somerueles, Vice-Admiralty Court of Halifax, Nova Scotia Stewart's Vice-Admiralty Reports 482 (1813), reprinted in International Journal of Cultural Heritage (1996) vol.5(2), pp.319-329
• Taylor, C. Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition (Princeton NJ: 1994), Chapter 2: ‘The Politics of Recognition’, pp.25-37, 60-73
• Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 2 November 2001, UNESCO Doc.31C/Res.25, Annex I
• Right of access to and enjoyment of cultural heritage, Report of the independent expert in the field of cultural rights, 21 March 2011, UN Doc.A/HRC/17/38
2: Conflitti armati e occupazione militare
• Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, and Annex, The Hague, 18 October 1907, (1908) 2(supp.) AJIL 90
• Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, 14 May 1954, in force 7 August 1956, 249 UNTS 240
• Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, 14 May 1954, into force 7 August 1956, 249 UNTS 358
• Second Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, 26 March 1999, into force 9 March 2004, 2253 UNTS 212.
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘Cultural Heritage in Human Rights and Humanitarian Law’, in O. Ben-Naftali (ed.), International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 250-302
• O’Keefe, R. ‘Protection of Cultural Heritage in International Criminal Law’, Melbourne Journal of International Law (2010), vol.11, pp.339-393
3: Distruzione intenzionale
• UNESCO Declaration concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at its 31st session, 17 October 2003
• Francioni, F. and F. Lenzerini, ‘The Destruction of the Buddha’s of Bamyan and International Law’, European Journal of International Law (2003), vol.14, p.619
• Security Council Res.2199 of 12 February 2015, UN Doc.S/RES/2199(2015)
• Intentional Destruction as a violation of Human Rights, Report of the Special Rapporteur in the Field of Cultural Rights, 3 February 2016, UN Doc.A/HRC/31/59
• The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi, ICC-01/12-01/15, International Criminal Court, Judgment 27 September 2016
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘The Criminalisation of the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage’, in M. Orlando and T. Bergin (eds), Forging a Socio-Legal Approach to Environmental Harm: Global Perspectives (London: Routledge, forthcoming)
4: Patrimonio mondiale e patrimonio sottomarino
• Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 16 November 1972, in force 17 December 1975, 1037 UNTS 151
• Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, 8 July 2015, UNESCO Doc.WHC.15/01
• Francioni F., and F. Lenzerini (eds), The 1972 World Heritage Convention: A Commentary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp.1-8 and 399-410
• Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, 2 November 2001, into force 2 January 2009, 2562 UNTS 3
• Institut de droit international Resolution 2015/3, The Legal Regime of Wrecks on Warships and Other State-Owned Ships in International Law
• Dromgoole S., ‘2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage’. In: A. Connolly (ed.), Cultural Heritage Rights (London: Ashgate, 2015)
5: Commercio e restituzione di beni culturali
• Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavations, adopted by the UNESCO General Conference 5 December 1956
• Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, Paris, 14 November 1970, in force 24 April 1972, 823 UNTS 231
• UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, Rome, 24 June 1995, in force 1 July 1998, (1995) 34 ILM 1322
• L. V. Prott, ‘Unesco and Unidroit: A Partnership against Trafficking in Cultural Objects’, in N. Palmer (ed.), The Recovery of Stolen Art: A Collection of Essays, (The Hague, 1998), 205
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘The Criminalisation of the Illicit Trade in Cultural Property’, in H. Geismar and J. Anderson (eds), Cultural Property Reader (London: Routledge, 2016)
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘Human rights and illicit trade in cultural objects’, in S. Borelli and F. Lenzerini (eds), Cultural Heritage, Cultural Rights, Cultural Diversity: International Law Perspectives, (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2012), pp.107-140
Letture ulteriori:
• Council Regulation (EC) No.116/2006 on the export of cultural goods
• Council Directive No.93/7/EEC on the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State
• Biondi, A. ‘The Gardener and other Stories: The Peregrinations of Cultural Artefacts within the European Union’, in R. Craufurd Smith (ed.), Culture and European Union Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp.153-168
6: Patrimonio intangibile e lingue
• Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore, Paris, 15 November 1989
• Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, Paris, 17 November 2003, UNESCO Doc.MISC/2003/CLT/CH/14
• Operational Directive for the implementation of the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage, as amended by the General Assembly of States Parties on 1 June 2016
• Yamato Declaration on Integrated Approaches for Safeguarding Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage, UNESCO Doc.WHC-04/7EXT.COM/INF.9(2004), Annex I
• Blake, J. International Cultural Heritage Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), Chapter 5
• Lixiniski, L. Intangible Cultural Heritage in International Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), Chapter 2
• Council of Europe Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, ETS No.148, 5 November 1992, in force 1 March 1998
• Mancini, S. and De Witte, B. ‘Language Rights as Cultural Rights: A European Perspective’, in F. Francioni and M. Scheinin (eds), Cultural Human Rights, (Leiden: Brill, 2008)
7: Diversità culturale e diritto del commercio internazionale
• General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, LT/UR/A-1A/1/GATT/1, signed 15 April 1994 (GATT 1994), Articles IV (Screen Quotas), XX(a)(Public Morals), (f)(National Treasures), XXIV (Anti-Dumping), XVI (Subsidies) and (XIX) (Safeguards)
• Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, 20 October 2005, in force 18 March 2007, 2440 UNTS 311
• UNESCO Recommendation Concerning the International Exchange of Cultural Property, adopted by the General Conference on 26 November 1976
• Graber, C. ‘The New UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity: A Counterbalance to the WTO?’ Journal of International Economic Law (2006) vol.9, p.553
• Voon, T. ‘Culture, Human Rights and the WTO’, in AF. Vrdoljak (ed.), The Cultural Dimension of Human Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)
• Vadi, V. ‘Crossed destinies: international economic courts and the protection of cultural heritage’, Journal of International Economic Law (2015), vo.18(1), pp.51-77
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘International Exchange and Trade in Cultural Objects’ in V. Vadi and B. de Witte (eds), Culture and International Economic Law (London: Routledge 2015) pp.124-142
8: Diritti degli artisti, libertà di espressione e diritti culturali
• Article 27, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, GA Res.217A(III), 10 December 1948
• Article 15, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, GA Res.2200A(XXI), 16 December 1966, in force 3 January 1976
• UNESCO Recommendation by the People at Large in Cultural Life and their Contribution to It, adopted by the General Conference on 26 November 1976
• UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist, adopted by the General Assembly 27 October 1980
• General Comment No.21 Right to take part in cultural life (art.15, para.1(a)) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 21 December 2009, UN Doc.E/C.12/GC/21
• General Comment No.17 Right to benefit from the protection of the moral and material Interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he or she is the author (article 15, paragraph (1)(c) of the Covenant), 12 January 2006, UN Doc.E/C.12/GC/17
• The Right to Freedom of Artistic Expression and Creativity, Report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of Cultural Rights, 14 March 2013, UN Doc.A/HRC/23/34
• O’Keefe, R. ‘The ‘Right to Take Part in Cultural Life’ under Article 15 of the ICESCR’ International and Comparative Law Quarterly (1998) vol. 47, p.904
• Sax, J. Playing Darts with Rembrandt: Public and Private Rights in Cultural Treasures (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 2001), Chapter 1
9: Diversità culturale, diritti umani, minoranze e popoli indigeni
• Minority Schools in Albania, 1935 PCIJ, ser.A/B, No.64, p.4 at p.17
• Article 27, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, GA Res.2200A(XXI), 16 December 1966, in force 23 March 1976
• General Comment No.23: Article 27 (Minorities) adopted by the Human Rights Committee 8 April 1994, UN Doc.CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.5
• Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, GA Res. 47/135, 18 December 1992, UN Doc.A/Res/47/135; (1993)
• UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, GA Res.61/295, 13 September 2007
• Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 2 November 2001, UNESCO Doc.31C/Res.25, Annex I
• Right of access to and enjoyment of cultural heritage, Report of the independent expert in the field of cultural rights, 21 March 2011, UN Doc.A/HRC/17/38
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘Human rights and cultural heritage in international law’ in F. Lenzerini and A. F. Vrdoljak (eds), International Law for Common Goods: Normative Perspectives on Human Rights, Culture and Nature, (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2014), pp.139-175
10: Responsabilità e riparazione per danni al patrimonio culturale
• Draft Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts, GA Res.56/83 of 28 January 2002, 53 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 10) at 43, U.N. Doc. A/56/10 (2001)
• Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparations for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law, GA Res.60/147 of 16 December 2005
• Lenzerini, F. ‘Suppressing and Remedying Offences against Culture’ in AF. Vrdoljak (ed.), The Cultural Dimension of Human Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘Reparations for Cultural Loss’, in F. Lenzerini (ed.), Reparations for Indigenous Peoples: International and Comparative Law Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp.197-228
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘Genocide and Restitution: Ensuring Each Group’s Contribution to Humanity’, 22(1) European Journal of International Law (2011) 17-47
11: Soluzione delle controversie
• Francioni, F. ‘Plurality and interaction of legal orders in the enforcement of cultural heritage law’, in F. Francioni and J. Gordley (eds), Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)
• Case concerning Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand), ICJ Judgment of 15 June 1962; and Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 15 June, ICJ Judgment of 11 November 2013
• Republic of Austria v. Altmann, 372 F 3d 1246 (9th Cir. 2003), 539 US 987 (2004), 124 S. Ct. 46
• Chechi, A. ‘Plurality and coordination of dispute settlement in the field of cultural heritage’, in in F. Francioni and J. Gordley (eds), Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)
• Vrdoljak, AF. ‘Enforcement of Restitution through Peace Agreements’ in F. Francioni and J. Gordley (eds), Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)
12: Patrimonio culturale e diritto internazionale generale
• Francioni, F. ‘Beyond State Sovereignty: The Protection of Cultural heritage as a Shared Interest of Humanity’, Michigan Journal of International Law (2004), vol.25, p.1209-1229
• Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society (Faro Convention), CETS No.199, 27 October 2005, in force 1 June 2011
• United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property, 16 December 2004, UN Doc.A/RES/59/38 (2005)
• Declaration on Jurisdictional Immunities of State Owned Cultural Property, Council of Europe Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law, 2 June 2016
• Pavoni, R. ‘Sovereign Immunity and the Enforcement of International Cultural Heritage Law’, in F. Francioni and J. Gordley (eds), Enforcing International Cultural Heritage Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

Bibliografia

Vedi la sezione "Programma esteso"

Metodi didattici

Il Corso si articola in 12 lezioni a carattere seminariale di tre ore ciascuna. Gli studenti devono: frequentare il corso con regolarità; partecipare attivamente; coadiuvare la docente nella conduzione di un seminario.

Modalità verifica apprendimento

La valutazione avverrà sulla base di due componenti:

Partecipazione al corso – 20%
La valutazione della partecipazione si basa sul lavoro svolto nel semestre. Oltre a presenziare alle lezioni, gli studenti dovranno:
- raccogliere e leggere, prima di ogni lezione, i relativi materiali
- contribuire in modo chiaro e costruttivo alla discussione in classe
- ascoltare i diversi punti di vista e confrontarsi in modo costruttivo
- contribuire attivamente alla discussione delle letture e dei casi selezionati

Saggio di ricerca – 80%
Gli studenti dovranno redigere un saggio di 4.000 parole (incluse note e bibliografia) su di un argomento trattato a lezione.

Altre informazioni

LETTURE CONSIGLIATE

Gli studenti possono utilizzare i seguenti testi come riferimenti generali:
1) J. Blake, International Cultural Heritage Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015)
2) Nafziger, J., R. K. Paterson and A. D. Renteln (eds), Cultural Law: International, Comparative and Indigenous (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).